Yearly Archives: 2015
The United Nations Scientific Committee (UNSCEAR) published a report on “Levels and effects of radiation exposure due to the nuclear accident after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.” The contents of this report concurs in general with the opinion of Fukushima Medical University (FMU).
FMU will continue to make every effort to monitor and improve the health of Fukushima residents.
The ICRP Lecture series started upon signing of the Memorandum of Understandings by FMU and ICRP on February 19 of 2014. On March 16 2015, the 4th ICRP Lecture was given by Dr. Nobuhiko Ban, the ICRP Committee 1 member and Professor at Tokyo Healthcare University and Mr Chris Clement, Scientific Secretary of ICRP.
Dr. Ban talked under the title of “About the ICEP System of Radiological Protection” and overviewed the ICRP System of Radiation Protection (RP) which was revised in 2007. He discussed the overall framework of RP, exposure situations and the principles developed by ICRP. The framework of the ICRP system of RP is built on the recognition of health detriments brought about by radiation and the nature of dose responses with and without threshold. The system of RP recommended by ICRP is context dependent in that the system differs by the three exposure situations of planned, emergency and existing exposure situations, and by the three categories of occupational, medical and public exposures). Application the ICRP RP system also has to follow the three principles, justification, optimization and lose limits.
His presentation material is here.
Mr. Christopher Clement talked under the title of “The System of Radiological Protection in Medicine”. He began his talk by introducing a strong commitment of ICRP on this medical field since the largest dose to the people in the world comes from the medical use of radiation. Thus the three principles of RP are particularly important in applying the ICRP RP system in the use of radiation in medicine. He focused on the use of radiation in the field of the interventional cardiology in which the dose can be substantial such as a few Gy to the heart region. Even with the dose high enough to cause skin burns and resulting ulcers, such use of radiation is justified since the use is essential to save the life of the patient, demonstrating how the balance between risk and benefit can be justified and optimized.
Mr. Clement’s presentation material is here.
This Seminar was held on 16 March 2015 at Sendai City Silver Center in Sendai City. It was a Public Forum associated with the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction. This seminar was one of about 400 events held during the UN conference. About 50 people participated in this seminar.
The first lecture, by Professor Kenneth Nollet, was “Health Status of Fukushima Residents after the Nuclear Accident.” He explained the Fukushima Health Management Survey, a comprehensive and scientific survey of people in Fukushima after the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis. The interim outcome of this survey is released about 4 times in a year on line.
His slides are here.
The second lecture, by Professor Arifumi Hasegawa, was “Medical Response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident at Fukushima Medical University Hospital.” Drawing lessons from our response, he recommended the following:
◾Maintain awareness of the risks around us
◾Exercise precautions for predictable risks
◾Minimize uncertainties to the extent possible
◾Learn from experience and history
◾Acquire knowledge and skill
His slides are here.
The third lecture, by Dr. Atsushi Kumagai, was “Risk Communication after the Radiation Disaster; Living Safely and Soundly in Fukushima.”
His points include the following.
◾Purpose of risk communication is
1. To support citizens’ understanding of level of risk.
2. To support citizens’ own decision-making.
◾Communication patterns will change with time
1. Crisis → Post Crisis → Before Accident
◾Sympathy-based communication vs. Data-based communication
◾Medical professionals are the best suited to address radiation anxieties.
◾Being an expert during a crisis is much more than delivery of information.
◾Comprehensive support is essential. It requires humanity and liberal arts.
His slides are here.
10-11 Mar 2015 KIRAMS and WHO co-sponsor “Medical Preparedness and Response to Radiation Emergencies” in Seoul, ROK
The Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Science (KIRAMS), with co-sponsorship from the World Health Organization (WHO), sponsored a two-day workshop, March 10-11, “Medical Preparedness and Response to Radiation Emergencies.” Delegates from Asia-Pacific countries and North America attended and made presentation.
Delegates from Fukushima Medical University included Prof. Kenneth Nollet, A/Prof. Michio Murakami (presenter), and A/Prof. Atsushi Kumagai (presenter).
Following the radiation emergencies workshop, KIRAMS hosted an “International Workshop on Radiation Monitoring and Dosimetry” on March 12, with many of the same international delegates, and additional participation from around Korea.
Following the exchange of the memorandum between FMU and ICRP on February 19 of 2014, a series of lectures are given at FMU. On 16 February 2015, the 3rd ICRP lecture was given by Mr. Jacques Lochard, the vice chair of ICRP and Dr. Michiaki Kai, the Committee Four member of ICRP.
Dr. Kai, of the Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, introduced the ICRP System of Radiation Protection. He talked the historical development of the ICRP RP System in which he detailed the RP concept of the early 1900 time focusing on the prevention of the deterministic effect to be replaced by the linear non-threshold model of radiation risk. He also explained the rational behind some of the protection values such as 100 mSv, 100 mSv/year, 20 mSv/year, and 1 mSv/year in the context of different situations.
Dr. Kai’s presentation material is here.
Mr. Jacques Lochard, of the non-profit CEPN in France, was the 2nd presenter, speaking on “The role of experts in post nuclear accident rehabilitation: the co-expertise process.” He described his experience in Belarus around early 1990 in which experts gradually gained the trust of local people in the area affected by the Chernobyl accident and engaged them in the rehabilitation of their living circumstances. He also explained his experience in Fukushima.
He concluded his talk by the followings:
◾The Chernobyl and Fukushima experiences demonstrate that it is feasible to engage affected populations in a co-expertise process.
◾Dialogue to hear the concerns of people and to exchange experiences is essential to initiate the process and progressively develop a practical radiological protection culture among the people.
◾In this process the role of experts is to serve local actors and to facilitate the development of their ability to assess and manage their own situation (self-help protection). Experts must shift from the explanation of phenomena to the resolution of problems together with the affected people.
Mr. Lochard’s presentation material is here.
Dr. Aram Avetisov, associate professor at Belarusian State Medical University, and Dr. Tamara Sharshakova, professor of Gomel State Medical University, gave special lectures at Fukushima Medical University on 27 January 2015. It was the 2nd time that professors from 2 medical universities in Belarus spoke at FMU about their experience after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. After the lectures, the professors discussed many aspects of the accident with health professionals, medical students and professors at FMU.
Belarusian State Medical University and Gomel State Medical University had made agreements on academic cooperation with FMU in September 2013.
Click here to see the presentation materials (slides)
Dr. Aram Avetisov
Dr. Tamara Sharshakova